• Decomposing loss aversion from a single neural signal
    by Ruining Wang on 15 Luglio 2024

    People often display stronger aversion to losses than appetite for equivalent gains, a widespread phenomenon known as loss aversion. The prevailing theory attributes loss aversion to a valuation bias that amplifies losses relative to gains. An alternative account attributes loss aversion to a response bias that avoids choices that might result in loss. By modeling the temporal dynamics of scalp electrical activity during decisions to accept or reject gambles within a sequential sampling...

  • Problematic Gaming and Gambling: A Systematic Review of Task-Specific EEG Protocols
    by Dovile Simkute on 13 Luglio 2024

    Even though gaming and gambling bear similar problematic behavioral aspects, there are no recognizable neurophysiological biomarkers or features characterizing and/or distinguishing these conditions. A systematic review of the literature with a focus on methods was performed in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science (Web of Science Core Collection), EBSCOhost Research Databases (APA PsycINFO; APA PsycArticles; OpenDissertations; ERIC) databases. Following search terms were used to search the databases:...

  • Therapeutic Potential of Naltrexone in the Niche of Psychopharmacology
    by Ahmed Naguy on 12 Luglio 2024

    NTX is FDA-approved for opiate and alcohol use disorders as anti-craving agent. It has been used successfully off-label in other psychiatric indications. Here, we shed some light on these while examining the extant evidence.

  • Chromosome genome assembly of the Camphora longepaniculata (Gamble) with PacBio and Hi-C sequencing data
    by Kuan Yan on 12 Luglio 2024

    INTRODUCTION: Camphora longepaniculata, a crucial commercial crop and a fundamental component of traditional Chinese medicine, is renowned for its abundant production of volatile terpenoids. However, the lack of available genomic information has hindered pertinent research efforts in the past.

  • Adjunctive antimicrobial photodynamic therapy for treating periodontal and peri-implant diseases
    by Pia-Merete Jervøe-Storm on 12 Luglio 2024

    BACKGROUND: Periodontitis and peri-implant diseases are chronic inflammatory conditions occurring in the mouth. Left untreated, periodontitis progressively destroys the tooth-supporting apparatus. Peri-implant diseases occur in tissues around dental implants and are characterised by inflammation in the peri-implant mucosa and subsequent progressive loss of supporting bone. Treatment aims to clean the pockets around teeth or dental implants and prevent damage to surrounding soft tissue and bone,...

  • The global prevalence of mental health disorders among runaway and homeless youth: A meta-analysis
    by Bahram Armoon on 12 Luglio 2024

    A meta-analysis was performed to identify the pooled prevalence of mental health disorders (MHDs) among runaway and homeless youth (RHY). Relevant studies published between December 1, 1985, and October 1, 2023, were identified in the PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. A preliminary screening of 11,266 papers resulted in the inclusion of 101 studies. The pooled-prevalence estimates were obtained using a random-effects model. The findings showed varying lifetime...

  • Identifying subgroups of urge suppression in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder using machine learning
    by Goi Khia Eng on 14 Luglio 2024

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is phenomenologically heterogeneous. While predominant models suggest fear and harm prevention drive compulsions, many patients also experience uncomfortable sensory-based urges ("sensory phenomena") that may be associated with heightened interoceptive sensitivity. Using an urge-to-blink eyeblink suppression paradigm to model sensory-based urges, we previously found that OCD patients as a group had more eyeblink suppression failures and greater activation of...

  • Stability and Validity of Self-Reported Depression and Anxiety in Autistic Youth
    by Soo Youn Kim on 13 Luglio 2024

    The aim of this study was to assess test-retest reliability and diagnostic validity of self-report instruments of depression and anxiety in autistic youth. Participants were 55 autistic youth aged 8-17 years presenting with depressive or anxiety symptoms. They were interviewed with the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children (K-SADS-PL) and completed the Children's Depression Inventory, Second Edition - Self Report Short (CDI 2:SR[S]) and the Revised...

  • Early maladaptive schemas in autogenous and reactive subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder
    by Muhammed Raşit Bardakçı on 13 Luglio 2024

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the study support that there are differences between autogenous and reactive subtypes of OCD in terms of dominant schemas. Therefore, its thought that the use of Schema Therapy methods in which schemas appropriate for subtypes are investigated in the treatment of OCD patients will contribute favorably to the treatment response.

  • Psychiatric polygenic risk scores: Experience, hope for utility, and concerns among child and adolescent psychiatrists
    by Amanda R Merner on 13 Luglio 2024

    Recent advances in psychiatric genetics have enabled the use of polygenic risk scores (PRS) to estimate genetic risk for psychiatric disorders. However, the potential use of PRS in child and adolescent psychiatry has raised concerns. This study provides an in-depth examination of attitudes among child and adolescent psychiatrists (CAP) regarding the use of PRS in psychiatry. We conducted semi-structured interviews with U.S.-based CAP (n = 29) who possess expertise in genetics. The majority of...

  • The Impact of COVID on Adolescent Anxiety: Trends, Clinical Considerations, and Treatment Recommendations
    by Izabela Milaniak on 13 Luglio 2024

    Rates of clinical anxiety have increased during COVID and post-quarantine in youth, with older adolescent girls and youth with minorized racial, gender, and sexuality identities most vulnerable. Given that increased anxiety to a threatening/uncertain environment is adaptive, it is important to conceptualize anxiety from a balanced perspective, evaluating its functionality. For adolescents continuing to struggle with re-integration into their social environments and school avoidance, an exposure...

  • Serum Erythropoietin and Ischemic-Modified Albumin Levels in Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
    by Masum Öztürk on 12 Luglio 2024

    Erythropoietin (EPO) has neuroprotective effects by increasing oxidative stress resistance and stabilizing redox balance. Ischemic-modified albumin (IMA) is a product of protein oxidation, and recent evidence suggests that IMA can be used as an indicator of oxidative damage. This study aimed to investigate serum EPO and IMA levels in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients and to investigate the relationship between EPO and IMA levels and clinical variables such as disease duration and...

  • Physical restraint and associated agitation
    by Shimon Cohen on 15 Luglio 2024

    CONCLUSIONS: Restrained patients tended to have higher morbidity and mortality during ICU and hospital stays, as well as a greater tendency for agitation events and more severe agitation scores, with an increased need for in-hospital anti-psychotic treatment. These findings regarding patient characteristics might be used to formulate treatment plans to reduce the rate of physical restraint in the ICU.

  • The impact of alcohol and other psychoactive substance use during the covid-19 pandemic: problems and consequences
    by D H-D Khubieva on 14 Luglio 2024

    This article discusses issues related to the use of surfactants during the COVID-19 pandemic. The global nature of this crisis has had a significant impact on the lives of people around the world, including their mental health. The introduction of quarantine and «isolation» measures have become one of the measures to control the spread of the disease, but such restrictions have led to various adverse psychological reactions such as anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, as well as...

  • Targeting fear memories: Examining pharmacological disruption in a generalized fear framework
    by Marcelo Giachero on 14 Luglio 2024

    Labilization-reconsolidation, which relies on retrieval, has been considered an opportunity to attenuate the negative aspects of traumatic memories. A therapeutic strategy based on reconsolidation blockade is deemed more effective than current therapies relying on memory extinction. Nevertheless, extremely stressful memories frequently prove resistant to this process. Here, after inducing robust fear memory in mice through strong fear conditioning, we examined the possibility of rendering it...

  • Ketamine metabolism via hepatic CYP450 isoforms contributes to its sustained antidepressant actions
    by Thi Mai Loan Nguyen on 14 Luglio 2024

    (R,S)-ketamine (ketamine) has rapid and sustained antidepressant (AD) efficacy at sub-anesthetic doses in depressed patients. A metabolite of ketamine, including (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine ((6)-HNKs) has been reported to exert antidepressant actions in rodent model of anxiety/depression. To further understand the specific role of ketamine's metabolism in the AD actions of the drug, we evaluated the effects of inhibiting hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes on AD responses. We assessed whether...

  • Admiration and motivation: key factors in managing PTSD among firefighters
    by Yang Pan on 14 Luglio 2024

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) presents a significant challenge for firefighters. While research suggests that admiration may have a positive impact on individual psychological well-being, its specific influence on PTSD among firefighters remains unexplored. This study aims to investigate the association between admiration, motivation (both internal and external), and PTSD in a sample of 2156 firefighters in order to identify effective coping strategies for managing PTSD in this...

  • Reversible Increased Anxiety Following Left-Sided Stellate Ganglion Block to Treat Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Case Report
    by Sean W Mulvaney on 13 Luglio 2024

    Describe a 2-patient case report of a rare occurrence of significantly increased anxiety after a left-sided stellate ganglion block (SGB) and the subsequent improvement of that anxiety through a right-sided SGB. Right-sided SGB to treat post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has over 23 supporting publications in the peer-reviewed medical literature, including level 1 evidence. A published case series of 285 patients showed that two-level SGB may improve anxiety-related symptoms in patients....