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  • Personalized connectivity-based network targeting model of transcranial magnetic stimulation for treatment of psychiatric disorders: computational feasibility and reproducibility
    by Zhengcao Cao on 29 Febbraio 2024

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) holds promise for treating psychiatric disorders; however, the variability in treatment efficacy among individuals underscores the need for further improvement. Growing evidence has shown that TMS induces a broad network modulatory effect, and its effectiveness may rely on accurate modulation of the pathological network specific to each disorder. Therefore, determining the optimal TMS coil setting that will engage the functional pathway...

  • Applications of TMS in individuals with methamphetamine use disorder: A review
    by Mingming Zhang on 29 Febbraio 2024

    Methamphetamine abuse results in a host of social and medical issues. Methamphetamine use disorder (MUD) can hinder the brain and impair cognitive functions and mental health. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive approach in the treatment of MUD. Recent studies have demonstrated encouraging and positive effects of TMS on the craving, affective symptoms, sleep quality, and cognitive functions in individuals with MUD. The regulation of specific brain activities through TMS has...

  • When the heart inhibits the brain: Cardiac phases modulate short-interval intracortical inhibition
    by Mario Paci on 28 Febbraio 2024

    The phasic cardiovascular activity influences the central nervous system through the systolic baroreceptor inputs, inducing widespread inhibitory effects on behavior. Through transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) delivered during resting-state over the left primary motor cortex and across the different cardiac phases, we measured corticospinal excitability (CSE) and distinct indices of intracortical motor inhibition: short (SICI) and long (LICI) interval, corresponding to GABA(A) and GABA(B)...

  • The role of dorsal premotor cortex in joint action inhibition
    by Elisa Dolfini on 26 Febbraio 2024

    Behavioral interpersonal coordination requires smooth negotiation of actions in time and space (joint action-JA). Inhibitory control may play a role in fine-tuning appropriate coordinative responses. To date, little research has been conducted on motor inhibition during JA and on the modulatory influence that premotor areas might exert on inhibitory control. Here, we used an interactive task in which subjects were required to reach and open a bottle using one hand. The bottle was held and...

  • Developing an AI-empowered head-only ultra-high-performance gradient MRI system for high spatiotemporal neuroimaging
    by Dan Wu on 25 Febbraio 2024

    Recent advances in neuroscience requires high-resolution MRI to decipher the structural and functional details of the brain. Developing a high-performance gradient system is an ongoing effort in the field to facilitate high spatial and temporal encoding. Here, we proposed a head-only gradient system NeuroFrontier, dedicated for neuroimaging with an ultra-high gradient strength of 650 mT/m and 600 T/m/s. The proposed system features in 1) ultra-high power of 7MW achieved by running two gradient...

  • Research on the brain phantom for transcranial electromagnetic neuromodulation
    by Zhen Wu on 25 Febbraio 2024

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), a widely used neuroregulatory technique, has been proven to be effective in treating neurological and psychiatric disorders. The therapeutic effect is closely related to the intracranial electric field caused by TMS, thus accurate measurement of the intracranial electric field generated by TMS is of great significance. However, direct intracranial measurement in human brain faces various technical, safety, ethical and other limitations. Therefore, we have...

  • Frontal and cerebellar contributions to pitch and rhythm processing: a TMS study
    by Silvia Picazio on 25 Febbraio 2024

    Music represents a salient stimulus for the brain with two key features: pitch and rhythm. Few data are available on cognitive analysis of music listening in musically naïve healthy participants. Beyond auditory cortices, neuroimaging data showed the involvement of prefrontal cortex in pitch and of cerebellum in rhythm. The present study is aimed at investigating the role of prefrontal and cerebellar cortices in both pitch and rhythm processing. The performance of fifteen participants without...

  • Traumatic Brain Injury and Neuromodulation Techniques in Rehabilitation: A Scoping Review
    by Andrea Calderone on 24 Febbraio 2024

    CONCLUSIONS: This review has demonstrated that neuromodulation techniques are promising instruments in the rehabilitation field, including those affected by TBI. The efficacy of neuromodulation can have a significant impact on their lives and improve functional outcomes for TBI patients.

  • Midbrain signaling of identity prediction errors depends on orbitofrontal cortex networks
    by Qingfang Liu on 24 Febbraio 2024

    Outcome-guided behavior requires knowledge about the identity of future rewards. Previous work across species has shown that the dopaminergic midbrain responds to violations in expected reward identity and that the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) represents reward identity expectations. Here we used network-targeted transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a trans-reinforcer reversal learning task to test the hypothesis that outcome...

  • Sequential Multilocus Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Treatment of Tinnitus With and Without Comorbid Major Depressive Disorder
    by Zoe R Berman on 22 Febbraio 2024

    CONCLUSIONS: Patients showed significant improvement in tinnitus from multilocus sequential rTMS treatment, and those with tinnitus alone improved more quickly. Those with depression who continued rTMS through a full 30-session course further improved, indicating that tinnitus with comorbid MDD may respond with extended treatment.

  • Driving Hebbian plasticity over ventral premotor-motor projections transiently enhances motor resonance
    by Emilio Chiappini on 22 Febbraio 2024

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide the first evidence that inducing STDP to strengthen PMv input to M1 neurons causally enhances muscle-specific motor resonance in M1. Our study sheds light on the plastic mechanisms that shape AON functionality and demonstrates that exogenous manipulation of AON connectivity can influence basic mirror mechanisms that underlie social perception.

  • Field recordings of transcranial magnetic stimulation in human brain postmortem models
    by Charles Quesada on 20 Febbraio 2024

    CONCLUSIONS: Transcranial magnetic stimulation coil MFs decay in brain structures similarly as in air, attenuation with distance being significantly lower with angulated coils. Reaching brain targets deeper than 20 mm such as the insula or Antérior Cingulate Cortex seems feasible only when using angulated coils. The abacus of MF attenuation provided here can be used to adjust modalities of deep brain stimulation with rTMS in future research protocols.

  • Neural correlates of fine motor grasping skills: Longitudinal insights into motor cortex activation using fNIRS
    by Xiaoli Li on 20 Febbraio 2024

    CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that early rehabilitation interventions, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), could be optimally directed at M1 and PFC in the initial stages. In contrast, SMA and PL can be targeted throughout the motor learning process. This research illuminates the path for developing tailored motor rehabilitation interventions based on specific stages of motor learning.

  • Transcranial magnetic stimulation effects support an oscillatory model of ERP genesis
    by Jelena Trajkovic on 20 Febbraio 2024

    Whether prestimulus oscillatory brain activity contributes to the generation of post-stimulus-evoked neural responses has long been debated, but findings remain inconclusive. We first investigated the hypothesized relationship via EEG recordings during a perceptual task with this correlational evidence causally probed subsequently by means of online rhythmic transcranial magnetic stimulation. Both approaches revealed a close link between prestimulus individual alpha frequency (IAF) and P1...

  • Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation for smoking cessation
    by Christine Ibrahim on 20 Febbraio 2024

    No abstract